Myosin V motors mediate cargo transport; however, the identity of neuronal molecules transported by these proteins remains unknown. Here we show that myosin Vb is expressed in several neuronal populations and associates with the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate-type glutamate receptor subunit GluR1. In developing hippocampal neurons, expression of the tail domain of myosin Vb, but not myosin Va, enhanced GluR1 accumulation in the soma and reduced its surface expression. These changes were accompanied by reduced GluR1 clustering and diminished frequency of excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic currents. Similar effects were observed upon expression of full-length myosin Vb lacking a C-terminal region required for binding to the small GTPase Rab11. In contrast, mutant myosin Vb did not change the localization of several other neurotransmitter receptors, including the glutamate receptor subunit NR1. These results reveal a novel mechanism for the transport of a specific glutamate receptor subunit in neurons mediated by a member of the myosin V family.