Several serology-based immunoassays are used to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a chronic protozoan parasitic disease caused by the Leishmania donovani complex. These tests are primarily designed to diagnose the most severe clinical form of VL, known as kala-azar. However, leishmanial infection is frequently asymptomatic and may manifest only as a positive serologic response or positive leishmanin skin test. We modified a previously described enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects patient antibodies reactive with the recombinant Leishmania protein K39 (rK39) to confirm suspected kala-azar and to detect asymptomatic infection in a community study in Bangladesh. With the inclusion of a standard curve on each ELISA plate, the rK39 ELISA was more repeatable (kappa coefficient of agreement=0.970) and more reliable compared to the original method (kappa=0.587, P<0.001). The cutoff point for a positive antibody response was chosen based on the 99th percentile of the ELISA distribution for the negative-control sera. However, we found that sera from all patients with active kala-azar yielded values more than twice the magnitude of this cutoff. Using receiver-operator characteristic curves, we determined a second cutoff value predictive of kala-azar. Using these criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of the modified ELISA for kala-azar were 97.0% and 98.9%, respectively, for sera from our study population. We hypothesize that individuals with antibody levels greater than the 99th percentile of the negative controls but less than the cutoff point for kala-azar have asymptomatic leishmanial infections.