Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a clinician-delivered intervention, implemented during routine clinical care, in reducing unprotected sexual behavior of HIV-infected patients.
Design: A prospective clinical trial comparing the impact of a clinician-delivered intervention arm vs. a standard-of-care control arm on unprotected sexual behavior of HIV-infected patients.
Setting: The 2 largest HIV clinics in Connecticut.
Participants: A total of 497 HIV-infected patients, aged > or =18 years, receiving HIV clinical care.
Intervention: HIV clinical care providers conducted brief client-centered interventions at each clinical encounter that were designed to help HIV-infected patients reduce unprotected sexual behavior.
Main outcome measures: Unprotected insertive and receptive vaginal and anal intercourse and unprotected insertive oral sex; unprotected insertive and receptive vaginal and anal intercourse only.
Results: HIV-infected patients who received the clinician-delivered intervention showed significantly reduced unprotected insertive and receptive vaginal and anal intercourse and insertive oral sex over a follow-up interval of 18 months (P < 0.05). These behaviors increased across the study interval for patients in the standard-of-care control arm (P < 0.01). For the measure of unprotected insertive and receptive vaginal and anal sex only, there was a trend toward a reduction in unprotected sex among intervention arm participants over time (P < 0.09), and a significant increase in unprotected sex in the standard-of-care control arm (P < 0.01).
Conclusions: A clinician-delivered HIV prevention intervention targeting HIV-infected patients resulted in reductions in unprotected sex. Interventions of this kind should be integrated into routine HIV clinical care.