A candidate gene approach to searching for low-penetrance breast and prostate cancer genes

Nat Rev Cancer. 2005 Dec;5(12):977-85. doi: 10.1038/nrc1754.


Most cases of breast and prostate cancer are not associated with mutations in known high-penetrance genes, indicating the involvement of multiple low-penetrance risk alleles. Studies that have attempted to identify these genes have met with limited success. The National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium--a pooled analysis of multiple large cohort studies with a total of more than 5,000 cases of breast cancer and 8,000 cases of prostate cancer--was therefore initiated. The goal of this consortium is to characterize variations in approximately 50 genes that mediate two pathways that are associated with these cancers--the steroid-hormone metabolism pathway and the insulin-like growth factor signalling pathway--and to associate these variations with cancer risk.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Breast Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Genes, Neoplasm*
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Penetrance*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism


  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones