Hereditary hydronephrosis (MIM 143400) is an autosomal dominant trait that causes unilateral or bilateral pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction. Linkage analysis was undertaken in 5 families with hereditary PUJ obstruction using the major histocompatibility complex locus as a test marker. The data as a whole supported a hereditary hydronephrosis locus on 6p. Maximal lod scores were 3.090 at a recombination fraction of 0.1 with full penetrance, and 2.486 at a recombination fraction of 0.1 with a penetrance of 90%. However, analysis of two point lod scores using the HOMOG program revealed significant evidence for genetic heterogeneity with one locus on 6p in 4 of the families, and a different locus in one family. After exclusion of this unlinked family, two point analysis gave a maximal lod score of 3.9 at a recombination fraction of 0.05 with full penetrance, and 4.2 at a recombination fraction of 0.0 with 90% penetrance. These data support the assignment of one of the loci for hereditary hydronephrosis to chromosome 6p.