Background: Cardiovascular risk-related markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have not been well understood.
Methods: Serum and urine samples for biochemical and immunologic analysis were collected from 204 normal subjects and 257 type 2 DM patients, the latter of which were further classified by different diabetic duration with or without retinopathy.
Results: Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, triglyceride, lipase, free fatty acid, albumin creatinine ratio (ACR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and homocysteine were significantly increased in DM patients, whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol and bilirubin were significantly decreased in DM patients, compared with normal subjects. Lipid profiles, ACR, bilirubin, uric acid, creatine kinase, and hsCRP were not changed in DM patients with different diabetic duration or diabetic retinopathy. Lactate dehydrogenase in DM patients with duration >20 years and homocysteine in patients with duration >10 years was significantly higher than those with duration <5 years. Homocysteine was significantly increased in DM patients with retinopathy, compared with DM patients without retinopathy.
Conclusion: The increased triglyceride, lipase, free fatty acid, albumin creatinine ratio, lactate dehydrogenase and homocysteine as well as decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol and anti-oxidative bilirubin in DM patients should be cautious and considered as risks for increasing DM complication. Homocysteine might be associated with longer diabetic duration and microvascular complication of retinopathy in diabetes.