We demonstrate that the FATAL cytolysis assay can be adapted into a rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assay (RFADCC). The RFADCC relies on double-staining target cells with a membrane dye (PKH-26) and a viability dye (CFSE) prior to the addition of antibody and effector cells. We used the RFADCC to assess dose-dependent and envelope-specific anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ADCC responses mediated by monoclonal antibody-2G12 and human sera. Using the assay, we also detected early anti-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) ADCC responses in rhesus macaques infected with pathogenic SIV(mac251). Importantly, the RFADCC was further useful in monitoring anti-HIV and anti-SIV ADCC responses elicited by immunizing chimpanzees and rhesus macaques with replicating adenovirus-based AIDS vaccine candidates. In comparison to the standard chromium release assay, the RFADCC provides a higher cell killing readout and is advantageous in allowing use of viably frozen as well as fresh effector cells, thus facilitating assay standardization. The RFADCC is therefore a simple, reliable, and highly sensitive method that can be applied to assess the ADCC activity of monoclonal antibodies as well as ADCC responses elicited by HIV or SIV infection or by AIDS vaccine candidates.