A variety of different post-translational modifications of peptides displayed by class I and II MHC molecules have now been described. Some modifications promote the binding of peptides to MHC molecules, and might also influence the ability of the peptide to be produced by antigen processing pathways. In some instances, the antigen processing components themselves are actually responsible for generating post-translational modifications. Finally, evidence is accumulating that modifications can be altered as a consequence of inflammation, transformation, apoptosis and aging. This leads to altered repertories of MHC-associated peptides, which may be important in immune responses associated with autoimmune diseases, infection and cancer.