The JFK Coma Recovery Scale--Revised

Neuropsychol Rehabil. Jul-Sep 2005;15(3-4):454-60. doi: 10.1080/09602010443000425.


The JFK Coma Recovery Scale (CRS) was developed to help characterise and monitor patients functioning at Rancho Levels I-IV and has been used widely in both clinical and research settings within the US and Europe. The CRS was recently revised to address a number of concerns emanating from our own clinical experience with the scale, feedback from users and researchers as well as the results of Rasch analyses. Additionally, the CRS did not include all of the behavioural criteria necessary to diagnose the minimally conscious state (MCS), thereby limiting diagnostic utility. The revised JFK Coma Recovery Scale (CRS-R) includes addition of new items, merging of items found to be statistically similar, deletion or modification of items showing poor fit with the scale's underlying construct, renaming of items, more stringent scoring criteria, and quantification of elicited behaviours to improve accuracy of rating. Psychometric properties of the CRS-R appear to meet standards for measurement and evaluation tools for use in clinical and research settings, and diagnostic application suggests that the scale is capable of discriminating patients in the minimally conscious state from those in the vegetative state.

MeSH terms

  • Brain / physiopathology
  • Coma / diagnosis*
  • Coma / physiopathology
  • Coma / rehabilitation
  • Humans
  • Neuropsychological Tests*
  • Psychometrics / methods
  • Recovery of Function*
  • Treatment Outcome