Our ultimate goal is to develop mechanism-based pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) models to characterize and to predict CNS drug responses in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. To this end, it is essential to have information on the biophase pharmacokinetics, because these may significantly differ from plasma pharmacokinetics. It is anticipated that biophase kinetics of CNS drugs are strongly influenced by transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The special role of microdialysis in PK/PD modeling of CNS drugs lies in the fact that it enables the determination of free-drug concentrations as a function of time in plasma and in extracellular fluid of the brain, thereby providing important data to determine BBB transport characteristics of drugs. Also, the concentrations of (potential) extracellular biomarkers of drug effects or disease can be monitored with this technique. Here we describe our studies including microdialysis on the following: (1) the evaluation of the free drug hypothesis; (2) the role of BBB transport on the central effects of opioids; (3) changes in BBB transport and biophase equilibration of anti-epileptic drugs; and (4) the relation among neurodegeneration, BBB transport, and drug effects in Parkinson's disease progression.