Fluorescent labeling study of plasminogen concentration and location in simulated bovine milk systems

J Dairy Sci. 2006 Jan;89(1):58-70. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72069-0.


A fluorescent labeling method was developed to study plasminogen (PG) concentration and location in simulated bovine milk. Activity and stability of PG labeled with Alexa Fluor 594 (PG-594) were comparable to those of native PG. The fluorescent signal of PG-594 exhibited pH, temperature, and storage stability, and remained stable throughout typical sample treatments (stirring, heating, and ultracentrifugation). These characteristics indicate broad applicability of the fluorescent labeling technique for milk protease characterization. In an example application, PG-594 was added to simulated milk samples to study effects of heat and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) on the distribution of PG. Before heating, about one-third of the PG-594 remained soluble in the whey fraction (supernatant) whereas the rest became associated with the casein micelle. Addition of beta-LG to the system slightly shifted PG-594 distribution toward the whey fraction. Heat-induced PG-594 binding to micelles in whey-protein-free systems was evidenced by a decrease of PG-594 from 31 to 15% in the whey fraction accompanied by an increase of PG-594 from 69 to 85% in casein micelle fractions. When beta-LG was present during heating, more than 95% of PG-594 became associated with the micelle. A comparison with the distribution pattern of PG-derived activities revealed that heat-induced PG binding to micelles accompanies heat-induced PG inactivation in the micelle fraction. Incubation of the casein micelles with the reducing agent beta-mercaptoethanol revealed that disulfide bonds formed between PG and casein or between PG and casein-bound beta-LG are the mechanisms for heat-induced PG binding to casein micelles. Western blotting and zymography results correlated well with fluorescent labeling studies and activity studies, respectively. Theoretically important findings are: 1) when heated, serum PG is capable of covalently binding to micellar casein or complexing with beta-LG in whey and then coadhering to micelles, and 2) PG that associated with micellar casein through lysine binding sites before heating is capable of developing heat-induced disulfide bonds with casein. The overall results are PG covalently binding to micelles and inactivation thereafter. Our results suggest that, instead of thermal denaturation through irreversible unfolding, covalent bond formation between PG and other milk proteins is the mechanism of PG inhibition during thermal processing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blotting, Western
  • Caseins / chemistry
  • Caseins / metabolism
  • Cattle*
  • Disulfides / chemistry
  • Female
  • Fluorescent Dyes* / metabolism
  • Hot Temperature
  • Lactoglobulins / pharmacology
  • Mercaptoethanol / pharmacology
  • Micelles
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Milk / enzymology*
  • Milk Proteins / analysis
  • Milk Proteins / metabolism
  • Organic Chemicals / metabolism
  • Plasminogen / analysis*
  • Plasminogen / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Plasminogen / metabolism
  • Protein Denaturation
  • Protein Folding
  • Solubility
  • Spectrometry, Fluorescence
  • Whey Proteins


  • Alexa594
  • Caseins
  • Disulfides
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Lactoglobulins
  • Micelles
  • Milk Proteins
  • Organic Chemicals
  • Whey Proteins
  • Mercaptoethanol
  • Plasminogen