We investigated the genetic properties of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii collected from a regional hospital in Taiwan. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the isolates were genetically diverse. Polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and DNA-DNA hybridisation showed that the bla(IMP-1) gene resided as a cassette in a plasmid-borne class 1 integron in two isolates. The majority of the resistant isolates were plasmid-less and carried no bla(IMP), bla(VIM) or bla(CFI) genes, indicating that other uncharacterised metallo-beta-lactamases or mechanisms other than enzyme production are involved in carbapenem resistance in this group of A. baumannii. We conclude that multidrug resistance of A. baumannii was a combined effect of lateral gene transfer and clonal spread of multiple resistant clones. Strict measures should be implemented to control the further spread of resistance.