Nitrotyrosine and chlorotyrosine: clinical significance and biological functions in the vascular system

J Surg Res. 2006 Jun 15;133(2):143-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2005.10.008. Epub 2005 Dec 19.


The heme-containing enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) is both present and active in inflammatory conditions. This enzyme is potentiated by its formation of multiple inflammatory mediators. The two most common mediators are the modified tyrosines: nitrotyrosine and 3-chlorotyrosine. Along with other modified tyrosines, these molecules have been found to be elevated in atherosclerosis, lung disease, sepsis, vasculitis, and other inflammatory diseases. By treating some of these diseases, the levels of modified tyrosines have been shown to decrease. There have been a wide range of animal models designed to study the in vivo effects of these tyrosine molecules. In addition, there are also several reports in the literature of the in vitro actions of modified tyrosine molecules demonstrated by various cell-culture models. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the clinical significance and biological functions of these modified tyrosine molecules in atherosclerosis as well as a variety of other inflammatory conditions. It is timely information because of their association with diseases as well as lack of overview of their molecular actions. This review will focus on the formation, clinical significance, and animal and cell-culture models of these important molecules.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Atherosclerosis / metabolism
  • Atherosclerosis / physiopathology*
  • Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Tyrosine / physiology
  • Vasculitis / metabolism
  • Vasculitis / physiopathology


  • 3-nitrotyrosine
  • Tyrosine
  • 3-chlorotyrosine