Effect of prostatic massage on serum complexed prostate-specific antigen levels

Urology. 2005 Dec;66(6):1234-8. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2005.06.077.


Objectives: To evaluate the effects of prostatic massage on the serum complexed PSA (cPSA) concentration in various prostatic diseases.

Methods: A total of 51 men who presented to our outpatient clinic for the first time with symptoms of lower urinary outflow obstruction were included in this study. Blood samples were obtained from each patient before and 30 minutes after prostatic massage. Total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), and cPSA levels were measured using a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay.

Results: After prostatic massage, the tPSA and fPSA levels and fPSA/tPSA ratio increased significantly (P < 0.0001), and the increase in cPSA was minimal but statistically significant (P = 0.047). In patients with prostate cancer, no significant increase occurred in the mean forms of PSA (tPSA, cPSA, and fPSA/tPSA ratio), except for fPSA, after prostatic massage. We observed a greater increase in all PSA forms in the chronic prostatitis group.

Conclusions: In this study, prostatic massage increased serum cPSA concentration, but to a lesser extent than tPSA and fPSA.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Male
  • Massage*
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood*
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / blood*
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / diagnosis
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Prostatitis / blood*
  • Prostatitis / diagnosis


  • Prostate-Specific Antigen