Inappropriate use of intravenous pantoprazole: extent of the problem and successful solutions

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Dec;3(12):1207-14. doi: 10.1016/s1542-3565(05)00757-3.


Background & aims: Indications for intravenous proton pump inhibitors (IV PPI) include upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) from peptic ulcer disease with high-risk stigmata and patients receiving nothing by mouth (NPO). The objectives were to assess the extent of errors in indications for IV PPI use and to determine whether multidisciplinary interventions could improve IV PPI use and costs.

Methods: Part 1: Patients prescribed IV PPI during a period of 4 months were divided into 2 settings, UGIB or non-UGIB. The setting-specific appropriateness of the IV PPI indication and dosing regimen was determined. Part 2: Patients prescribed IV PPI before and after multidisciplinary interventions (educating physicians, a computerized dose template, pharmacists altering IV PPI orders in non-UGIB patients who were not NPO, and recommending a GI consult when a continuous infusion was ordered) were studied. Incidence of prescribing errors, IV PPI costs, and potential confounders were compared.

Results: Part 1: Only 50% of UGIB (n = 145) patients received IV PPI for an appropriate indication. Both indication and dosing regimen were appropriate in 21%. In the non-UGIB group (n = 95), 33% were truly NPO; 51% had a correct dosing frequency. Part 2: The postintervention (n = 105) group (vs the preintervention group, n = 113) showed a significant absolute reduction in the degree of inappropriate indication in the UGIB (26%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10%-42%; P < .0001) and in the non-UGIB (41%; 95% CI, 24%-58%; P < .0001) subgroups. However, a greater improvement in underspending than overspending meant that overall costs were unchanged.

Conclusions: IV PPI was frequently prescribed inappropriately and incorrectly; simple maneuvers resulted in reductions in errors.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles
  • Aged
  • Anti-Ulcer Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Anti-Ulcer Agents / therapeutic use
  • Benzimidazoles / administration & dosage*
  • Benzimidazoles / therapeutic use
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Male
  • Medication Errors*
  • Omeprazole / administration & dosage
  • Omeprazole / analogs & derivatives*
  • Omeprazole / therapeutic use
  • Pantoprazole
  • Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage / drug therapy*
  • Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage / economics
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sulfoxides / administration & dosage*
  • Sulfoxides / therapeutic use


  • 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles
  • Anti-Ulcer Agents
  • Benzimidazoles
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • Sulfoxides
  • Pantoprazole
  • Omeprazole