Cardiopulmonary bypass and mitral valve replacement during pregnancy

Perfusion. 2005 Oct;20(6):359-68. doi: 10.1191/0267659105pf832oa.


Gravid patient cardiopulmonary bypass remains a high-risk procedure with regard to fetal preservation. Maternal mortality is similar to that of the nonpregnant female at 1.5-5%. However, fetal mortality remains high at 16-33%, with an average of 19% over the past 25 years, with no correlation to gestational age. Teratogenesis is a major consideration in the first trimester. Variations in the timing of surgical intervention, gestational age, maternal health status, type of procedure, pre- or postorganogenesis, perfusion protocol, and pharmaceutical therapy are all factors that can influence fetomaternal outcome. In this report, we present a literature review along with our experience of a 26-year-old female who developed complications with her pregnancy at approximately 17 weeks gestation, with adverse neurological sequelae. The patient was 152 cm in height and weighed 48 kg, with a calculated body surface area of 1.40 M2. She had no prior history of cardiac disease and, upon admission to our institution, presented with a declining health status in pulmonary edema and was treated medically, with an ultimate requirement for mitral valve replacement. The total cardiopulmonary bypass time was 99 min with an aortic crossclamp time of 83 min. The literature, as expected, is limited to case reports and reviews since a controlled clinical trial during pregnancy is nonexistent, using extracorporeal circulation. This greatly challenges the medical staff in managing such difficult cases, with an incidence of heart disease during pregnancy of 1.2-3.7%.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass*
  • Female
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation*
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency / surgery*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular / surgery*
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Pulmonary Edema / surgery