Aggregation of the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide in the extracellular space of the brain is central to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Abeta aggregation is concentration dependent and brain region specific. Utilizing in vivo microdialysis concurrently with field potential recordings, we demonstrate that Abeta levels in the brain interstitial fluid are dynamically and directly influenced by synaptic activity on a timescale of minutes to hours. Using an acute brain slice model, we show that the rapid effects of synaptic activity on Abeta levels are primarily related to synaptic vesicle exocytosis. These results suggest that synaptic activity may modulate a neurodegenerative disease process, in this case by influencing Abeta metabolism and ultimately region-specific Abeta deposition. The findings also have important implications for treatment development.