Objectives: Patients presenting with chest pain or related symptoms suggestive of myocardial ischemia, without ST-segment elevation (NSTE) on their presenting electrocardiograms, often present a diagnostic challenge in the emergency department (ED). Prompt and accurate risk stratification to identify those patients with NSTE chest pain who are at highest risk for adverse events is essential, however, to optimal management. Although validated and used frequently in patients already enrolled in acute coronary syndrome trials, the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score never has been examined for its value in risk stratification in an all-comers, non-trial-based ED chest pain population.
Methods: An analysis of an ED-based prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 3,929 adult patients presenting with chest pain syndrome and warranting evaluation with an electrocardiogram. These patients had TIMI risk scores determined at ED presentation. The main outcome was the composite of death, acute myocardial infarction (MI), and revascularization within 30 days.
Results: The TIMI risk score at ED presentation successfully risk-stratified this unselected cohort of chest pain patients with respect to 30-day adverse outcome, with a range from 2.1%, with a score of 0, to 100%, with a score of 7. The highest correlation of an individual TIMI risk indicator to adverse outcome was for elevated cardiac biomarker at admission. Overall, the score had similar performance characteristics to that seen when applied to other databases of patients enrolled in clinical trials and registries using a 14-day end point.
Conclusions: The TIMI risk score may be a useful tool for risk stratification of ED patients with chest pain syndrome.