Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) has often been regarded as the adult spectrum of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). The present study aims to compare the clinical and laboratory features, the disease course and the response to treatment in patients having AOSD with those having sJIA. Retrospective review of all available data that were filled out by adult and paediatric rheumatologists from six centers using a standard data extraction form was performed. A total of 95 patients with AOSD and 25 patients with sJIA were recruited for the study. The frequency of fever, rash, myalgia, weight loss and sore throat was higher in patients with AOSD. The pattern of joint involvement differed slightly. Laboratory findings were similar in both groups, except that liver dysfunction and neutrophilia were more common among adults. A multiphasic pattern dominated the childhood cases, whereas the most frequent course was a chronic one in adults. Corticosteroids and methotrexate were the most commonly employed therapy; however, chloroquine was another popular therapy in the adult group. We showed a difference in the rate of clinical and laboratory features between patients with AOSD and those with sJIA. AOSD and sJIA may still be the same disease, and children may simply be reacting differently as the result of the first encounter of the putative antigens with the immune system.