High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transport in the metabolic syndrome: application of a new model for HDL particle kinetics

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Mar;91(3):973-9. doi: 10.1210/jc.2005-1895. Epub 2005 Dec 20.


Context: Reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and is related to defects in the kinetics of HDL apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and A-II.

Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate HDL apoA-I and apoA-II kinetics in nondiabetic men with MetS and lean controls by developing a model that describes the kinetics of lipoprotein (Lp)A-I and LpA-I:A-II particles.

Design: Twenty-three MetS men and 10 age-matched lean controls were investigated. ApoA-I and apoA-II tracer/tracee ratios were studied after iv d3-leucine administration using gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

Results: Compared with lean subjects, MetS subjects had accelerated catabolism of LpA-I (P < 0.001), LpA-I:A-II (P = 0.005), and apoA-II (P = 0.005); the production rate of LpA-I was also significantly elevated in MetS, so that the dominant changes in plasma concentrations were reduction in LpA-I:A-II (P < 0.001) and apoA-II (P < 0.05). Increased catabolism of LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II was directly related to increased waist circumference, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, small HDL particle size, hyperinsulinemia, and low phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity; overproduction of LpA-I was significantly associated with increased waist circumference, insulin resistance, and low PLTP activity.

Conclusions: MetS men exhibit hypercatabolism of the two major HDL lipoprotein particles, LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II, but selective overproduction of LpA-I maintains a normal plasma concentration of LpA-I. These kinetic perturbations are probably related to central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, and low plasma PLTP activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Apolipoprotein A-I / blood*
  • Apolipoprotein A-I / metabolism
  • Apolipoprotein A-II / blood*
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Lipoproteins, HDL / blood*
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood*
  • Models, Biological
  • Reference Values


  • Apolipoprotein A-I
  • Apolipoprotein A-II
  • Lipoproteins, HDL