Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) has antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori in vitro and is effective to suppress bacterial colonization in mice. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of orally administered bLF on H. pylori colonization in humans by a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Fifty-nine healthy subjects positive for H. pylori infection were recruited. Subjects were randomized into two groups. The bLF group received bLF tablets at a dosage of 200 mg b.i.d. for a period of 12 weeks, and the control group received placebo tablets without bLF. The (13)C-urea breath test (UBT) was performed before, during, and at the end of administration, and again 4 weeks after administration. Positive response was defined as more than 50% decrease of the UBT value at the end of administration. Positive response was observed in 10 of 31 bLF-treated subjects (32.3%) and 1 of 28 control subjects (3.6%), indicating that the rate of positive response in the bLF group was significantly higher than that in the control group (bLF vs. control, P < 0.01). These results suggested that bLF administration is effective to suppress H. pylori colonization.