Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in children under 5 years of age. In countries where the Hib conjugate vaccine is not routinely used, Hib is a leading cause of childhood pneumonia and meningitis. Routine use of the Hib conjugate vaccines has resulted in a remarkable decline in Hib disease in developed and developing countries. However, Hib conjugate vaccines are not routinely available in most developing countries, many of which have high burdens of Hib disease. This review outlines the pathogenesis and epidemiology of Hib disease, and the various options for prevention.