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, 238 (1), 119-27

Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery for Morbid Obesity: Evaluation of Postoperative Extraluminal Leaks With Upper Gastrointestinal Series

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Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery for Morbid Obesity: Evaluation of Postoperative Extraluminal Leaks With Upper Gastrointestinal Series

Laura R Carucci et al. Radiology.

Abstract

Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the radiographic features of extraluminal leak after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) surgery at upper gastrointestinal (GI) examinations in a large series of patients and to determine morbidity and mortality in those patients with leak.

Materials and methods: The investigational review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study, and the need for patient informed consent was waived. Radiologic database review revealed 1202 upper GI studies performed over a 4-year period in 906 patients after RYGBP. Extraluminal leak was identified in 50 patients. Two patients with leaks that occurred before the study period were excluded. Of the remaining 48 patients, 12 were men and 36 were women (mean age, 45 years; range, 26-64 years). Surgery had been laparoscopic in 23 patients and open in 25. Upper GI studies were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus for the origin, extent, and severity of leaks and associated findings. Chart review was performed to determine clinical course, treatment, and outcome.

Results: Fifty extraluminal leaks were detected in 48 of 904 patients (5.3%) at upper GI examinations. All leaks were identified within 28 days, and, in 37 of 48 patients (77%), leakage was diagnosed within 1 week of surgery. The majority of leaks (n = 37) originated from the gastrojejunal anastomosis. Leaks also occurred at the distal portion of the esophagus (n = 5), the gastric pouch (n = 5), the oversewn jejunum (n = 2), and the distal anastomosis (n = 1). Leaks extended into the left upper quadrant in 30 patients. Obstruction or ileus was present in 35 of 48 patients (73%). Leak into the excluded stomach was observed in 15 of 48 patients. The occurrence of extraluminal leak prolonged hospital stays; organ failure occurred in 14 (29%) and death in three (6%) of the 48 patients.

Conclusion: Extraluminal leak was identified on upper GI series in 48 of 904 patients (5.3%) after RYGBP for morbid obesity. Extraluminal leak most commonly arises from the gastrojejunal anastomosis and extends into the left upper quadrant. Extraluminal leak affects morbidity and mortality.

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