Membrane-mimetic films containing thrombomodulin and heparin inhibit tissue factor-induced thrombin generation in a flow model

Biomaterials. 2006 Apr;27(12):2637-50. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.10.025. Epub 2006 Jan 10.


Membrane-mimetic thin films containing thrombomodulin (TM) and/or heparin were produced and their capacity to inhibit thrombin generation evaluated in a continuous flow system. Tissue factor (TF) along with TM and heparin were immobilized in spatially restricted zones as components of a membrane-mimetic film. Specifically, TF was positioned as an upstream trigger for thrombin generation and TM and/or heparin positioned over the remaining downstream portion of test films. Peak and steady-state levels of thrombin were decreased by antithrombin III (ATIII), as well as by surface bound heparin and TM. Although physiologic concentrations of ATIII have the capacity to significantly inhibit thrombin activity, surface bound TM and heparin nearly abolished steady-state thrombin responses. In particular, surface bound TM appears to be superior to heparin in reducing local thrombin concentrations. These studies are the first to demonstrate the additive effect of surface bound heparin and TM as a combined interactive strategy to limit TF-induced thrombin formation.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anticoagulants / metabolism
  • Antithrombin III / metabolism
  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry
  • Biocompatible Materials / metabolism
  • Biomimetics*
  • Blood Coagulation
  • Factor X / metabolism
  • Heparin / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Liposomes
  • Materials Testing
  • Membranes
  • Molecular Structure
  • Phospholipids / chemistry
  • Phospholipids / metabolism
  • Thrombin / metabolism*
  • Thrombin Time
  • Thrombomodulin / metabolism*
  • Thromboplastin / metabolism*


  • Anticoagulants
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Liposomes
  • Phospholipids
  • Thrombomodulin
  • Antithrombin III
  • Factor X
  • Heparin
  • Thromboplastin
  • Thrombin