Routine second trimester ultrasound screening has resulted in more infants diagnosed with antenatal hydronephrosis. Current recommendations suggest postnatal evaluation of all infants with a renal pelvic diameter >5 mm with ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG.) There are many etiologies of obstructive uropathy including ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction, ureterovesical junction (UVJ) obstruction, posterior urethral valves (PUV), prune belly syndrome, and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Obstructive uropathy can result in tubular damage and decreased nephron number. Tubular damage can result in sodium wasting, hyperkalemic acidosis, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Most patients do not require renal replacement therapy in the neonatal period; however, chronic renal insufficiency can occur if the neonate has a significant reduction in nephron number or progressive renal damage from obstruction or infection.