Cortical polarity regulates cell division, migration, and differentiation. Microtubules induce cortical polarity in yeast, but few examples are known in metazoans. We show that astral microtubules, kinesin Khc-73, and Discs large (Dlg) induce cortical polarization of Pins/Galphai in Drosophila neuroblasts; this cortical domain is functional for generating spindle asymmetry, daughter-cell-size asymmetry, and distinct sibling fates. Khc-73 localizes to astral microtubule plus ends, and Dlg/Khc-73 and Dlg/Pins coimmunoprecipitate, suggesting that microtubules induce Pins/Galphai cortical polarity through Dlg/Khc-73 interactions. The microtubule/Khc-73/Dlg pathway acts in parallel to the well-characterized Inscuteable/Par pathway, but each provides unique spatial and temporal information: The Inscuteable/Par pathway initiates at prophase to coordinate neuroblast cortical polarity with CNS tissue polarity, whereas the microtubule/Khc-73/Dlg pathway functions at metaphase to coordinate neuroblast cortical polarity with the mitotic spindle axis. These results identify a role for microtubules in polarizing the neuroblast cortex, a fundamental step for generating cell diversity through asymmetric cell division.