History and recent advances in coronavirus discovery

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Nov;24(11 Suppl):S223-7, discussion S226. doi: 10.1097/01.inf.0000188166.17324.60.


Human coronaviruses, first characterized in the 1960s, are responsible for a substantial proportion of upper respiratory tract infections in children. Since 2003, at least 5 new human coronaviruses have been identified, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, which caused significant morbidity and mortality. NL63, representing a group of newly identified group I coronaviruses that includes NL and the New Haven coronavirus, has been identified worldwide. These viruses are associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract disease and are likely common human pathogens. The global distribution of a newly identified group II coronavirus, HKU1, has not yet been established. Coronavirology has advanced significantly in the past few years. The SARS epidemic put the animal coronaviruses in the spotlight. The background and history relative to this important and expanding research area are reviewed here.

Publication types

  • Historical Article

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / history
  • Coronavirus / classification*
  • Coronavirus / isolation & purification*
  • Coronavirus / pathogenicity
  • Coronavirus 229E, Human / isolation & purification
  • Coronavirus 229E, Human / pathogenicity
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Coronavirus Infections / history*
  • Coronavirus Infections / virology
  • Female
  • History, 20th Century
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus / isolation & purification
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus / pathogenicity