Purpose: We developed a disease management program for patients with Type 2 diabetic nephropathy and evaluated its effects on the time to onset of end-stage renal disease or all-cause death compared with usual care.
Methods: In a 2-year, prospective cohort study, we compared the clinical outcomes of patients managed by a structured care protocol (n = 80) to a group receiving usual care (n=80) in the same hospital. Patients aged < or =80 years with type 2 diabetes, serum creatinine 150-400 micromol/L, and micro- or macroalbuminuria were recruited. The structured care protocol was implemented by a pharmacist-diabetes specialist team with particular emphasis on periodic laboratory assessments, patient adherence, risk factors control, and use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitor. The primary endpoint was the composite of end-stage renal disease or all-cause death. Other endpoints were the rate of renal decline, processes-of-care measures, and control of risk factors.
Results: During 22.8+/-7.9 months of follow-up, the primary endpoint developed in 24 and 40 patients in the structured care and usual care groups, respectively (adjusted risk reduction, 60%, P< .001). Structured care (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)], 0.40 [0.23-0.68]), age (0.95 [0.93-0.98]), baseline systolic blood pressure (BP) (1.014 [1.003-1.026]), logarithm (base 10) of baseline serum creatinine (34 441 [2290-517915]), and macroalbuminuria (8.95 [1.22-65.38]) were independent predictors for the primary endpoint. Structured care slowed the rate of renal decline (P=.032). More intensive laboratory measurements, increased use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitor, and greater reductions in BP and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were reported by patients receiving structured care.
Conclusions: Structured care delivered by a pharmacist-diabetes specialist team reduced the incidence of end-stage renal disease or death compared with usual care in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy.