Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica) is a very important medicinal plant in northern areas of Pakistan. The fruit of sea buckthorn is rich in nutrients and medicinal compounds such as vitamins, carotene, flavonoids, essential oil, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, and minerals. In order to compare various populations of sea buckthorn for chemical composition, eight populations from different areas of northern Pakistan were compared using fruit characteristics. Phytochemical analysis of berries showed vitamin C (250-333 mg/100 g), seed oil (7.69-13.7%), oil in softer pulp (19.2-29.1%), phytosterol content of seed oil (3.3-5.5%), and anthocyanin (0.5-25 mg/L), while the mineral element composition analysis revealed high contents of potassium (140-360 ppm), sodium (20-80 ppm), calcium (70-98 ppm), magnesium (150-240 ppm), iron (40-150 ppm), and phosphorus (110-133 ppm). This study established sea buckthorn berries as a good source of biochemical and mineral elements. The high variation between different populations shows the potential of selecting and breeding of the raw material for various defined purposes.