The outcomes of 293 patients with leukemia undergoing HLA-identical sibling (n = 158) or related HLA-mismatched (n = 135) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) performed during the same time period were compared. Patients received BUCY2 in HLA-identical sibling HCT or BUCY2 + ATG in mismatched HCT as conditioning regimens, followed by unmanipulated marrow and/or peripheral blood (PB) transplantation. All patients achieved full engraftment. The cumulative incidences of grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in the matched and mismatched cohorts were 32% (CI, 25%-39%) versus 40% (CI, 32%-48%, P = .13), respectively, with the relative risk (RR) = 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.94), P = .02. The incidence of chronic GVHD did not differ significantly between the cohorts (P = .97). Two-year incidences of treatment-related mortality and relapse for matched versus mismatched were 14% (range, 9%-20%) versus 22% (range, 15%-29%) with P = .10 and 13% (range, 8%-19%) versus 18% (range, 10%-27%) with P = .40, respectively. Two-year adjusted leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival were 71% (range, 63%-78%) versus 64% (range, 54%-73%) with P = .27 and 72% (range, 64%-79%) versus 71% (range, 62%-77%) with P = .72, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that only advanced disease stage and a diagnosis of acute leukemia had increased risk of relapse, treatment failure, and overall mortality. In summary, HCT performed with related HLA-mismatched donors is a feasible approach with acceptable outcomes.