Only 10% of persons infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis develop clinical tuberculosis (TB), indicating the existence of host genetic factors regulating disease expression. We investigated the association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes with the susceptibility to pulmonary TB in Koreans, with special emphasis on their association with drug resistance, disease severity, and disease recurrence. Human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-DRB1 and -DQB1 gene polymorphisms were analyzed in 160 Korean patients with pulmonary TB and 200 ethnically matched healthy controls. HLA-DRB1*0803 (25.0% vs. 14.5% in controls, OR = 1.97, p = 0.012, corrected p (p(c)) > 0.05) and DQB1*0601 (27.5% vs. 15.5% in controls, OR = 2.07, p = 0.005, p(c) > 0.05) were weakly associated with general susceptibility to TB. DRB1*0803 was significantly associated with drug resistance (30.9% vs. 14.5%, OR = 2.63, p(c) = 0.047) and more advanced lung lesion (29.8% vs. 14.5%, OR = 2.50, p(c) = 0.022). DRB1*0803 showed the strongest association with disease recurrence, especially after curative treatment for the earlier infection (47.4% vs. 14.5%, OR = 5.31, p(c) = 0.00009). DQB1*0601, which is strongly linked to DRB1*0803 in this population showed similar changes in the patients as those of DRB1*0803. It is suggested that DRB1*0803 and DQB1*0601 alleles are associated with disease progression of TB in Koreans, exerting influence on the development of drug resistance, severe disease, and recurrent disease.