We hypothesised that neighbourhood inequalities in health and health-related behaviour are due to selective migration between neighbourhoods. Ten-year follow-up data of 25-74-year-old participants in a Dutch city (Eindhoven) showed an increased probability of both upward and downward migration in 25-34-year-old participants, and in single and divorced participants. Women and those highly educated showed an increased probability of upward migration from the most deprived neighbourhoods; lower educated showed an increased probability of moving downwards. Adjusted for these factors, health and health-related behaviour were weakly associated with migration. Over 10 years of follow-up, selective migration will hardly contribute to neighbourhood inequalities in health and health-related behaviour.