Multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 1 belongs to the 'C' branch of the ABC transporter superfamily. MRP1 is a high-affinity transporter of the cysteinyl leukotriene C(4) and is responsible for the systemic release of this cytokine in response to an inflammatory stimulus. However, the substrate specificity of MRP1 is extremely broad and includes many organic anion conjugates of structurally unrelated endo- and xenobiotics. In addition, MRP1 transports unmodified hydrophobic compounds, such as natural product type chemotherapeutic agents and mutagens, such as aflatoxin B(1). Transport of several of these compounds has been shown to be dependent on the presence of reduced glutathione (GSH). More recently, GSH has also been shown to stimulate the transport of some conjugated compounds, including sulfates and glucuronides. Here, we summarize current knowledge of the substrate specificity and modes of transport of MRP1 and discuss how the protein may recognize its structurally diverse substrates.