A retrospective review was performed of patients diagnosed with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) from 1994 to 2003 at the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong. Eighteen patients were identified. Six (33.3%) were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The remaining 12 non-HIV-infected patients had underlying diseases: three post-renal transplant recipients, three with haematological malignancies, two with auto-immune diseases, two with renal diseases, one with hepatocellular carcinoma and one with congenital cytomegalovirus disease. Cytomegalovirus co-infection was observed in four patients. All patients received cotrimoxazole therapy, with intolerance observed in four of them, including one with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, two with repeated vomiting and one with renal impairment. Overall crude mortality was 33.3%. The results suggested that, apart from being a common infection for patients with HIV infection, PCP can occur during the course of many immunosuppressive diseases and therapies. The mortality of PCP was high despite appropriate treatment. Chemoprophylaxis should be considered in populations at risk.