Although coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a component of the oxidative phosphorylation process in mitochondria that converts the energy in carbohydrates and fatty acids into ATP to drive cellular machinery and synthesis, its effect in type I diabetes is not clear. We have studied the effect of 4 wk of treatment with CoQ10 (10 mg/kg, ip, daily) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (40 mg/kg, iv in adult rats) type I diabetes rat models. Treatment with CoQ10 produced a significant decrease in elevated levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and atherogenic index and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in diabetic rats. CoQ10 treatment significantly decreased the area under the curve over 120 min for glucose in diabetic rats, without affecting serum insulin levels and the area under the curve over 120 min for insulin in diabetic rats. CoQ10 treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione in the liver homogenates of diabetic rats. CoQ10 also lowered the elevated blood pressure in diabetic rats. In conclusion, CoQ10 treatment significantly improved deranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of experimental chemically induced diabetes in rats. The mechanism of its beneficial effect appears to be its antioxidant property.