The multifunctional roles of the four-and-a-half-LIM only protein FHL2

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006 Feb;63(3):268-84. doi: 10.1007/s00018-005-5438-z.


Numerous cellular processes require the concerted action of multiple proteins that assemble in functional complexes. Protein-protein interaction domains allow specific proteins to combine with certain partners. Specificity of protein-protein association can be obtained by an interaction code predicted by conserved amino acid sequences. One of the protein-protein interaction motifs is the LIM domain, a conserved cysteine-rich module present in more than 100 different human proteins. The human four-and-a-half-LIM-only protein family consists of the members FHL1, FHL2, FHL3, FHL4 and ACT. They are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific manner and participate in various cellular processes, including regulation of cell survival, transcription and signal transduction. Here, we review the current knowledge of the best-studied member of this family, FHL2. We describe the transcription regulation, the expression profile, the interaction partners, the subcellular localization, the biological functions and discuss the possible involvement of FHL2 in human diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Gene Expression
  • Homeodomain Proteins* / genetics
  • Homeodomain Proteins* / metabolism
  • Humans
  • LIM-Homeodomain Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Muscle Proteins* / genetics
  • Muscle Proteins* / metabolism
  • Neoplasms
  • Transcription Factors* / genetics
  • Transcription Factors* / metabolism


  • FHL2 protein, human
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • LIM-Homeodomain Proteins
  • Muscle Proteins
  • Transcription Factors