Osteoblastic differentiation of monkey embryonic stem cells in vitro

Cloning Stem Cells. 2005;7(4):232-7. doi: 10.1089/clo.2005.7.232.


Monkey embryonic stem (ES) cell is a useful tool for preclinical studies of regenerative medicine. In this paper, we investigated whether monkey ES cells can be differentiated into osteoblasts in vitro using factors known to promote osteogenesis. We prepared embryoid bodies (EB) in the presence of retinoic acid (RA) and subsequently differentiated in the medium containing either dexamethasone (DEX) or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in addition to osteogenic supplements (OS), specifically ascorbic acid and beta-glycerophosphate. RA treatment during EB formation induced osteoblastic marker genes, such as collagen type 1, osteopontin, and Cbfa1. For the expression of osteocalcin, however, cultivation with medium containing either DEX or BMP-2 in addition to OS was required. These results showed that osteoblasts could be derived from monkey ES cells in vitro and BMP-2 + OS was effective to induce calcification.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Calcification, Physiologic / drug effects
  • Calcification, Physiologic / physiology
  • Cell Differentiation / drug effects*
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Dexamethasone / pharmacology*
  • Embryo, Mammalian / cytology
  • Embryo, Mammalian / physiology*
  • Haplorhini
  • Humans
  • Osteoblasts / cytology
  • Osteoblasts / physiology*
  • Stem Cells / cytology
  • Stem Cells / physiology*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / pharmacology*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • BMP2 protein, human
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Dexamethasone