Butyrate specifically down-regulates salmonella pathogenicity island 1 gene expression

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006 Jan;72(1):946-9. doi: 10.1128/AEM.72.1.946-949.2006.


Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica is decreased after exposure to butyric acid. To understand the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, a comparative transcriptomic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium grown in medium supplemented with butyrate was performed. We found that butyrate down-regulated the expression of 19 genes common to both serovars by a factor of twofold or more, and 17 of these genes localized to the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1). These included the SPI1 regulatory genes hilD and invF. Of the remaining two genes, ampH has 91% homology to an Escherichia coli penicillin-binding protein and sopE2 encodes a type III-secreted effector protein associated with invasion but located at a separate site on the chromosome from SPI1.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Butyrates / pharmacology*
  • Culture Media
  • Down-Regulation*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Salmonella enteritidis / genetics
  • Salmonella enteritidis / growth & development
  • Salmonella enteritidis / metabolism*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / genetics
  • Salmonella typhimurium / growth & development
  • Salmonella typhimurium / metabolism*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Butyrates
  • Culture Media
  • Spi1 protein, Salmonella