Carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) have been associated with gastroesophageal reflux, an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. As both CSD consumption and esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence have sharply increased in recent decades, we examined CSD as a risk factor for esophageal and gastric cancers in a U.S. multicenter, population-based case-control study. Associations between CSD intake and risk were estimated by adjusted odds ratios (ORs), comparing the highest versus lowest quartiles of intake. All statistical tests were two-sided. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis, CSD consumption was inversely associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma risk (highest versus lowest quartiles, OR = 0.47, 95% confidence interval = 0.29 to 0.76; Ptrend = .005), due primarily to intake of diet CSD. High CSD consumption did not increase risk of any esophageal or gastric cancer subtype in men or women or when analyses were restricted to nonproxy interviews. These findings indicate that CSD consumption (especially diet CSD) is inversely associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, and thus it is not likely to have contributed to the rising incidence rates.