Genitourinary issues during spaceflight: a review

Int J Impot Res. 2005 Dec;17 Suppl 1:S64-7. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijir.3901431.


The genitourinary (GU) system is not uncommonly affected during previous spaceflights. GU issues that have been observed during spaceflight include urinary calculi, infections, retention, waste management, and reproductive. In-flight countermeasures for each of these issues are being developed to reduce the likelihood of adverse sequelae, due to GU issues during exploration-class spaceflight, to begin in 2018 with flights back to the Moon and on to Mars, according to the February 2004 Presendent's Vision for US Space Exploration. With implementation of a robust countermeasures program, GU issues should not have a significant threat for mission impact during future spaceflights.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aerospace Medicine*
  • Animals
  • Astronauts*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Reproduction / physiology*
  • Reproductive Techniques, Assisted
  • Space Flight
  • Urinary Tract Infections / etiology
  • Urogenital System / physiology*
  • Urologic Diseases / etiology
  • Weightlessness
  • Weightlessness Countermeasures