A general purpose model for the condensed phases of water: TIP4P/2005

J Chem Phys. 2005 Dec 15;123(23):234505. doi: 10.1063/1.2121687.


A potential model intended to be a general purpose model for the condensed phases of water is presented. TIP4P/2005 is a rigid four site model which consists of three fixed point charges and one Lennard-Jones center. The parametrization has been based on a fit of the temperature of maximum density (indirectly estimated from the melting point of hexagonal ice), the stability of several ice polymorphs and other commonly used target quantities. The calculated properties include a variety of thermodynamic properties of the liquid and solid phases, the phase diagram involving condensed phases, properties at melting and vaporization, dielectric constant, pair distribution function, and self-diffusion coefficient. These properties cover a temperature range from 123 to 573 K and pressures up to 40,000 bar. The model gives an impressive performance for this variety of properties and thermodynamic conditions. For example, it gives excellent predictions for the densities at 1 bar with a maximum density at 278 K and an averaged difference with experiment of 7 x 10(-4) g/cm3.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry, Physical
  • Computer Simulation
  • Diffusion
  • Ice
  • Models, Chemical
  • Models, Statistical
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Oxygen / chemistry
  • Static Electricity
  • Temperature
  • Thermodynamics
  • Water / chemistry*


  • Ice
  • Water
  • Oxygen