Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents a spectrum of liver diseases, characterized mainly by macrovesicular steatosis in the absence of significant alcohol ingestion. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease includes both non-alcoholic fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis once considered a benign process is now known to lead to progressive fibrosis and cirrhosis. Histologically indistinguishable from alcoholic liver disease, the exact aetiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease remains unknown, but the fundamental pathophysiological process appears to be insulin resistance and oxidative stress related to the metabolic syndrome. Therapy has focused on risk factors, weight reduction and pharmacological intervention. Promising pharmacological treatments have been demonstrated with antioxidants, insulin sensitizers, hepatoprotectants and lipid-lowering agents. However, without larger randomized studies, no pharmacological treatments can be recommended at this time.