Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. A common polymorphism at codon 12 of this gene (Pro12Ala) has been shown to confer protection against diabetes and colorectal cancer.
Aim: To study the association between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene polymorphism, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer in Chinese.
Methods: One hundred and four consecutive patients with non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma and 104 matched controls were examined. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma Pro12Ala polymorphism was analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Results: The frequency of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma G (Ala12) allele was significantly higher among cancer patients (19.2%) than in control (8.7%; OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.8). While H. pylori infection was more prevalent in gastric cancer patients (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.6-5.7), the combination of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma G allele and H. pylori infection further increased the risk of gastric cancer (OR 12.8, 95% CI 3.2-50.5). The presence of the Ala12 did not increase the risk of gastric cancer in H. pylori-negative subjects.
Conclusion: Our study suggests the potential association between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma polymorphism and H. pylori infection in the development of non-cardia gastric cancer.