IL-25 (IL-17E) induces IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 production from an unidentified non-T/non-B cell population and subsequently induces Th2-type immune responses such as IgE production and eosinophilic airway inflammation. IL-25R is a single transmembrane protein with homology to IL-17R, but the IL-25R signaling pathways have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway under IL-25R, especially the possible involvement of TNFR-associated factor (TRAF)6 in this pathway. We found that IL-25R cross-linking induced NF-kappaB activation as well as ERK, JNK, and p38 activation. We also found that IL-25R-mediated NF-kappaB activation was inhibited by the expression of dominant negative TRAF6 but not of dominant negative TRAF2. Furthermore, IL-25R-mediated NF-kappaB activation, but not MAPK activation, was diminished in TRAF6-deficient murine embryonic fibroblast. In addition, coimmunoprecipitation assay revealed that TRAF6, but not TRAF2, associated with IL-25R even in the absence of ligand binding. Finally, we found that IL-25R-mediated gene expression of IL-6, TGF-beta, G-CSF, and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine was diminished in TRAF6-deficient murine embryonic fibroblast. Taken together, these results indicate that TRAF6 plays a critical role in IL-25R-mediated NF-kappaB activation and gene expression.