Structural validity of a self-report concussion-related symptom scale

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Jan;38(1):27-32. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000183186.98212.d5.


Purpose: This study evaluated the factorial validity of a self-report measure of concussion-related symptom severity among a large sample of male, high-school athletes.

Methods: Participants (N = 1089) were nonconcussed, male, high-school football players. All participants completed a single baseline self-report measure of concussion-related symptom severity, namely the graded symptom checklist (GSC). We tested the factorial validity of the measure with confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL 8.50.

Results: The analysis indicated that a theoretically derived, three-factor model provided a good, but not excellent, fit for the 16-item GSC. Excellent model-data fit was demonstrated for the three-factor model for a 9-item version of the GSC. In both instances, the three factors were best described by a single second-order factor, namely concussion symptomatology.

Conclusions: This study provides additional evidence for the factorial validity of a summative self-reported measure of concussion-related symptoms. The factor structure represents a cohesive group of nine symptoms that can be explained by three underlying latent variables, namely somatic symptoms, neurobehavioral symptoms, and "cognitive" symptoms, subsumed under a single higher-order factor, namely concussion symptoms.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Brain Concussion / physiopathology*
  • Brain Concussion / psychology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mid-Atlantic Region
  • Self Disclosure*
  • Sports
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Trauma Severity Indices