Using data from a population-based survey of 2,702 women of reproductive age and from 28 in-depth interviews of abused women conducted during 2000-01, this study explores factors associated with domestic violence in urban and rural Bangladesh. Multilevel analysis revealed that in both residential areas, dowry or other demands in marriage and a history of abuse of the husband's mother by his father increased the risk of violence. Better spousal communication and husband's education beyond the tenth grade decreased the risk of violence. In the urban area, women's being younger than their husband and participating in savings and credit groups increased the risk of abuse, whereas husband's education beyond the sixth grade had a protective effect. In the rural area, women's earning an income increased the risk. These factors are important to consider when designing interventions.