Four children groups with and without thyroid pathology born to fathers exposed to ionizing irradiation in 1986 during Chernobyl accident as liquidators as well as residents of territory with radioactive contamination have been cytogenetically observed. The frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been studied using two-termed cultivation (during 48 and 144 hours). Under the short-term incubation the observed groups did not significantly differ on the mean-group integral cytogenetic parameters which corresponded to age norm, but in progeny of parents from radionuclide contaminated territory the increased level of chromosome type exchanges has been revealed. In long-termed lymphocyte cultures of children with chronic thyroiditis the significantly increased cytogenetic effects of both chromatid (single fragments) and chromosome types (abnormal monocentrics, centric rings) have been established. The data received testified the reality of the transmissible chromosome instability phenomenon in progeny of irradiated parents and confirmed the possibility of its expression in consequent mitoses.