The aim of the present study was to evaluate if high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) might reduce lung inflammation in preterm infants with infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in comparison with the early application of another potentially lung-protective ventilation strategy, such as pressure support ventilation plus volume guarantee (PSV + VG). Infants at less than 30 weeks of gestation with RDS were enrolled consecutively in the study if they required mechanical ventilation, and were randomly allocated to receive HFOV or PSV + VG. Bronchial aspirate samples for the measurement of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-8, and IL-10 were obtained before surfactant treatment (T1), after 6-18 hr of ventilation (T2), after 24-48 hr of ventilation (T3), and before extubation (T4). Thirteen patients were enrolled in the HFOV group, and 12 in the PSV + VG group. The mean values of IL-1beta, IL-8, and IL-10 at T4 were lower in the HFOV group than in the PSV + VG group. The present study demonstrates that early treatment with HFOV is associated with a reduction of lung inflammation in comparison with PSV + VG in preterm infants with RDS.
(c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.