The Health Council of the Netherlands has published an advisory report on neonatal screening in view of developments in diagnostics, therapy and the prevalence of neonatal diseases. Currently it involves screening for phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Because screening may lead to considerably better outcomes in affected newborns, the council recommends expanding current screening to include medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, sickle-cell disease and 12 other rare disorders: biotinidase deficiency, galactosaemia, glutaricaciduria type I, HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, holocarboxylase-synthetase deficiency, homocystinuria, isovaleric-acidaemia, long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, maple syrup urine disease, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, tyrosinaemia I and very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. A better detection method for cystic fibrosis must be developed before it is included in screening to restrict the number of sweat-test referrals of unaffected newborns. The council recommends providing information on neonatal screening during pregnancy and gives special attention to the possibility of detecting carriership in the parents.