Advances in the nanotechnology research have provided a new set of research tools, materials, structures, and systems for biological and medical research and applications. These nanotechnologies include the application of fluorescent quantum dots for optical imaging, the design of metallic nanoparticle surfaces for ultrasensitive biomolecular fingerprinting, and the use of nanostructures as hyperthermia agents for cancer therapy. Unlike conventional technologies, unique properties can be incorporated into nanometer-size particles, structures, and systems simply by changing their size, shape, and composition. Because of the tunable properties, biologists and clinicians could custom-design a material for a specific research need. In this review article, we highlight the recent advances and progress in Bionanotechnology research as well as provide future perspective on this integrative field.